Citing Music Sources in Your Essay and Bibliography - the 2007 version
[This is an expanded version of a document originating from Western's Don Wright Faculty of Music-- the former Music History Department - now part of the Department of Music Research and Composition.]
Please BEWARE - the formatting is NOT OPTIMAL in this html document. I advise consulting the PDF version, for greater accuracy of spacing, etc. LRP.
INDEX, text-based citations:
INDEX, musical citations:
Many students have probably not had much experience writing essays on music, a kind of writing that has its own stylistic conventions. Humanistic writing on music usually follows the Turabian guide (which is based on The Chicago Manual of Style), and Turabian will be followed in most of the history courses offered at Western. No matter what style guide is followed, it is important to be consistent and clear, so that the reader can easily track down your references.
Spell-out notes, keys and chords
When writing a music history essay, avoid using abbreviations and symbols:
middle C, E, G-natural, A-flat, F-sharp
the keys of F-sharp minor and E-flat major
the triad D-F-sharp-A
Use of hyphen in adjectival forms:
noun: adjective: twentieth century twentieth-century music quarter note quarter-note movement eighth note eighth-note triplet sixteenth note sixteenth-note figure thirty-second note thirty-second-note passage
Use of italics
In the days of typewriters, underlining was an instruction to the typesetter to set a particular passage in italics. With modern software, we now use italics.
Italicize all foreign words unless they are particularly familar in English usage:
tempo, cello, symphony
tempi, celli, opéra comique
tempo, tempos, but tempi
libretto, librettos, but libretti
crescendo, crescendos, but crescendi
allegro, andante, cantus firmus, recitative, Kappellmeister
[Beware of "inventing" your own terms; there is NO such verb as "to crescendo"!]
Titles of musical compositions:
a) Titles of operas, oratorios, motets, tone poems, and other long musical compositions are italicized:
The Magic Flute
Death and Transfiguration
b) Titles of songs and other short compositions are given in quotation marks:
"Jesu Joy of Man's Desiring"
c) Titles consisting of generic terms are capitalized but not italicized or put in quotation marks:
Brahms's Ballade op. 118 no. 3
Schubert's Piano Sonata in B-flat Major
Chopin's Waltz in C-sharp Minor
d) Movement titles are generally capitalized; individual movements from larger works are placed within quotation marks:
Andante from Mozart's Symphony in G Minor
Kyrie from Beethoven's Missa Solemnis
"On a rainy night" from Beckwith's Lyrics of the T'ang Dynasty
e) Names of pieces with specific titles should be italicized, IF it is a TRUE title (i.e., one that the composer has given to the work):
Schumann's Scenes from Childhood
Beethoven Symphony No. 3 (Eroica)
the Eroica Symphony by Beethoven
f) Names of individual movements from larger compositions (including choral works), when such movements are referred to by title, are placed in quotation marks:
"Contentedness" from Schumann's Scenes from Childhood
"And He Shall Purify..." from Handel's Messiah
"Wohin" from Die Schöne Müllerin
"Air with Variations" (The Harmonious Blacksmith) from Handel's Suite no. 5 in E Major
Title for a musical example:
It is important to identify clearly the musical examples you choose to illustrate your essay. You should provide all the necessary details: composer, title, movement (if appropriate) and measure numbers:
Ex. 1. Mozart, Symphony no. 41 ("Jupiter") K. 551, I, mm. 17-23
In the text of the essay, refer to this example as Ex.1
FOOTNOTE [F] vs. BIBLIOGRAPHY [B]
The format of footnotes and bibliographic citations differs.
A footnote is like a sentence, with each major item (author, title, facts of publication) separated by a comma.
A bibliographic citation, which begins at the left margin, with all subsequent lines indented (known as a “hanging indent”), separates major elements with a period.
[You will notice that all FOOTNOTE examples are numbered consecutively, as they would be in an essay.] NOTE that all items in a Bibliography are normally listed alphabetically–by the author's surname.
If there is no author's name for an item, list that one item by its title (alphabetically) within the list - please see the Sample Bibliography on page 14 of this document.
The following examples conform to the 7th edition (2007) of Turabian.
[Return to Index]
ARTICLES -- Journals, Magazines, Newspapers, Periodicals, Serials
The seventh edition of the Turabian guide offers different formats for magazine and journal citations, which can be problematic. Upon examining her citations (17.2-17.4), it appears that magazines and newspapers tend to offer one-page articles, while journal articles cover several pages. If you are writing a scholarly paper, choose the citation example for journals 17.2 – which requires you to specify the pagination of the entire article for your bibliography. [The footnote examples below refer to a single page, as is often the case for footnotes.]
1. Richard Semmens, “La Furstemberg and St. Martin’s Lane: Purcell’s French Odyssey.” Music & Letters 78 (1997): 347. [F]
Semmens, Richard. “La Furstemberg and St. Martin’s Lane: Purcell’s French Odyssey.” Music & Letters 78 (1997): 337-48. [B]
2. Stephen McClatchie, "The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection at the University of Western Ontario," Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 52 (December 1995): 387. [F]
McClatchie, Stephen. "The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection at the University of Western Ontario." Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 52 (December 1995): 385-406.[B].
[Return to Index]
3. Susan McClary, Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991), 197. [F]
McClary, Susan. Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Press, 1991. [B]
4. Janet R. Barrett, Claire W. McCoy and Kari K. Veblen, Sound ways of knowing : music in theinterdisciplinary curriculum (New York : Schirmer Books ; London : Prentice Hall International, 1997), 114-16. [F]
Barrett, Janet R. , Claire W. McCoy and Kari K. Veblen. Sound ways of knowing : music in the interdisciplinary curriculum. New York : Schirmer Books ; London : Prentice Hall International, 1997. [B]
[Return to Index]
Essentially, you are citing a journal article, with the added complication of including the title of the reviewed book. Remember that underlining a title = italics, so BOTH the title of the journal and the title of the book must be italicized.
5. Robert Carl, review of Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality, by Susan McClary, in Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 48 (June 1992): 1289. [F]
Carl, Robert. Review of Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality, by Susan McClary Notes: QuarterlyJournal of the Music Library Association48 (June 1992): 1288-1291. [B]
[Return to Index]
CITING FROM A SECONDARY SOURCE -- or -- "I could not consult the 'original'"
Occasionally, one is forced to cite an entry which refers to another important work. It may be impossible to consult the "original" work, if the original is rare, signed-out, or otherwise difficult to locate. The secondary work may provide a portion of the original work, or may provide a necessary translation; you will cite the original as contained in the secondary source in the following manner:
6. Robert Schumann, "Kennst du das Land," Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2, edited by Max Friedlaender
(Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?), 212; in Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V. Palisca
(New York: Norton, 1988), 338. [F]
Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land." Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2. Edited by Max Friedlaender. Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?: 212-215. In Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V. Palisca, 338-342. New York: Norton, 1988. [B]
7. Paul Dukas, "Claude Debussy et Paul Dukas," La Revue Musical, Special Number:
"La Jeunesse de Debussy" (May, 1926); cited by Jean Roy, trans. Denis Ogan, in accompanying
booklet to Debussy Melodies, performed by various singers with Dalton Baldwin, piano, EMI Classics,
CDM 7640962, 1980, 8. Compact disc. [UWO MCD 7048] [F]
Dukas, Paul. "Claude Debussy et Paul Dukas." La Revue Musical, Special Number: "LaJeuness de Debussy" (May, 1926). Cited by Jean Roy, trans. Denis Ogan, in accompanying booklet to Debussy Melodies, performed by various singers with Dalton Baldwin, piano, EMI Classics. CDM 7640962, 1980, 8-10. Compact disc. [UWO MCD7048] [B]
[Return to Index]
DICTIONARIES / ENCYCLOPAEDIAS (four different citation styles--choose ONE)
[FYI--S.v. is the abbreviation for a Latin term, sub verbo, or sub voce, meaning "under the word."]
8. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd rev. ed., 1964, s.v. "ornamentation." [F]
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd rev. ed., 1964. S.v. "Ornamentation." [B]
*** OR ***
9. The New Harvard Dictionary of Music, 1986, s.v. "electro-acoustic music," by Jon H. Appleton. [F]
Subsequent short-form entries (of Ex. 9 above) can be abbreviated to:
10. Appleton, "electro-acoustic music" in New Harvard Dictionary.[F]
The New Harvard Dictionary of Music. 1986. S.v. "electro-acoustic music" by Jon H. . Appleton. [B]
*** OR ***
Despite its name, TheNew Grove Dictionary is an encyclopaedia. The articles are written by experts, and signed; some articles have been extracted and published as individual books. While the preceding examples are all correct, some prefer the following citation format, which resembles the format for citing journal articles:
11. Michael F. Robinson, "Auletta, Pietro," in Stanley Sadie, ed., New Grove Dictionary
of Music and Musicians (London: Macmillan, 1980), I: 698. [F]
Robinson, Michael F. "Auletta, Pietro." Stanley Sadie, ed., New Grove Dictionary of Music andMusicians. London: Macmillan, 1980. I: 697-698. [B]
[Return to Index]
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is also available online. Please be aware that the citation examples given in Grove Music Online reflect British practice, and as such are incorrect for those North Americans using either the Chicago Manual of Style or Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.
Please also bear in mind that The New Grove is a special case: while “Dictionary” may be part of its title, it is NOT a generic dictionary. References to “dictionaries” in style manuals simply do not apply to the various incarnations of the Grove dictionaries!
12. Grove Music Online, s.v. "Schafer, R. Murray" (by Stephen Adams), http://www.grovemusic.com/
(accessed November 19, 2007). [F]
Adams, Stephen. S.v. "Schafer, R. Murray." Grove Music Online. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed
November 19, 2007). [B]
ESSAYS & FESTSCHRIFTEN
13. Gary C. Thomas, "Was George Frideric Handel gay? : on closet questions and cultural politics,"
in Queering the Pitch: The New Gay and Lesbian Musicology, eds. Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood, Gary C. Thomas (New York: Routledge, 1994), 167. [F]
Thomas, Gary C. "Was George Frideric Handel gay? : on closet questions and cultural politics." In Queering the Pitch: The New Gay and Lesbian Musicology, eds. Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood, Gary C. Thomas,155-203. New York: Routledge, 1994. [B]
Festschrift, citing entire volume, with editor as 'author':
14. David Hunter, ed., Music Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel
(Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science,
1994), 111. [F]
Hunter, David, ed. Music Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1994. [B]
Festschrift, citing a single essay by one author:
15. Calvin Elliker, "The Collector and Reception History: The Case of Josiah Kirby Lilly," in Music
Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel, ed. David Hunter.
(Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science,
1994), 191. [F]
Elliker, Calvin. "The Collector and Reception History: The Case of Josiah Kirby Lilly." In MusicPublishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel, edited by David Hunter. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1994: 189-203. [B]
[Return to Index]
16. Gustav Mahler to Justine Mahler, July 31, 1897, in The Mahler Family Letters, ed. Stephen
McClatchie (New York: Oxford, 2006), 320. [F]
Mahler, Gustav. Gustav to Justine Mahler, July 31, 1897. In The Mahler Family Letters, edited by Stephen McClatchie. New York: Oxford, 2006. [B]
17. César Cui to “Mon cher editeur” [Monsieur Heugel], November 16, 91, Gift of the Wilhelmina
McIntosh Book Fund of the Faculty of Music, The Opera Collection, MZ590, Music Library, University
of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
Cui, César. Cui to “Mon cher editeur” [Monsieur Heugel], November 16, 91. Gift of the Wilhelmina McIntosh Book Fund of the Faculty of Music. The Opera Collection, MZ590. Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
MUSIC, PRINTED -- separate edition
18. Louise Talma, Pastoral Prelude (Boston: Carl Fischer, 1952), 5. [F]
Talma, Louise. Pastoral Prelude. Boston: Carl Fischer, 1952. [B]
19. Claude Debussy, "Le vent dans la plaine," Préludes, ed. Pierre Marchand (Paris: Durand, ca.
1910), 8. [F]
Debussy, Claude. "Le vent dans la plaine," Préludes. Edited by Pierre Marchand. Paris: Durand, ca.1910. [B]
20. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, The Magic Flute, original text by Emanuel Schikaneder and Carl
Giesecke, English version by Ruth and Thomas Martin (New York: G. Schirmer, 1951), 157. [F]
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. The Magic Flute. Original text by Emanuel Schikaneder and Carl Giesecke. English version by Ruth and Thomas Martin. New York: G. Schirmer, 1951. [B]
[Return to Index]
MUSIC, PRINTED -- issued as part of an Anthology, or Collected Work
21. Robert Schumann, "Kennst du das Land," Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2, edited by Max Friedlaender
(Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?), 213.[F]
Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land," Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2. Edited by Max Friedlaender. Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?: 212-215. [B]
22. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Die Zauberflöte, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart neue
Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke, series 2, workgroup 5, vol. 19 (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1970), 205. [F]
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Die Zauberflöte. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart neue Ausgabesämtlicher Werke, series 2, workgroup 5, vol. 19. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1970. [B]
23. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272, in Twenty-one Concert Arias forSoprano,
v.1 (New York: G. Schirmer, 1952), 15.[F]
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272. In Twenty-one Concert Arias for Soprano, v.1, 14-34. New York: G. Schirmer, 1952. [B]
24. Robert Schumann, "Kennst du das Land," in Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed.
Claude V. Palisca (New York: Norton, 1988), 338.[F]
Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land." In Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V.
Palisca, 338-342. New York: Norton, 1988. [B]
25. Undine Smith Moore, “Mother to Son,” in Contemporary Anthology of Music by Women, ed. James R. Briscoe (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997), 224-28. [F]
Moore, Undine Smith. “Mother to Son.” In Contemporary Anthology of Music by Women, 224-28. Edited by James R. Briscoe. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997. [B]
MUSIC, MANUSCRIPTS - ORIGINAL
26. Gustav Mahler, "Symphony No. 1," copyist's score with annotations in Mahler's hand, ?1888-1889, CDN-Lu OS-MD-694, v.1-2. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection, The Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. [F]
Mahler, Gustav. "Symphony No.1." Copyist's score with annotations in Mahler's hand, ?1888-89, CDN-Lu
OS-MD-694, v.1-2. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection, The Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. [B]
MUSIC, MANUSCRIPTS- FACSIMILE REPRODUCTIONS
27. Il Codice Squarcialupi: MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca laurenziana di Firenze. 15th century
music manuscript, facsimile reproduction in colour with accompanying volume of studies edited by F.
Alberto Gallo. (Firenze: Giunti Barbera; [Lucca]: Libreria musicale italiana, 1992), f. 14. [F]
Il Codice Squarcialupi: MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca laurenziana DI Firenze. 15th century music
manuscript, facsimile reproduction in colour with accompanying volume of studies edited by F. Alberto
Gallo. Firenze: Giunti Barbera; [Lucca]: Libreria musicale italiana, 1992. [B]
MUSIC, COMMERCIALLY-RECORDED -- vinyl, cassettes, DATs, CDs, etc.
You will notice that several of the following examples do not include a date. While CDs frequently have a date of manufacture on the label, vinyl recordings often do not include this information. Rather than provide incorrect information, it is preferable to omit the date. The manufacturer's name and label number are sufficient to identify a recording. You may choose to include the Library's call number for an item, where applicable.
28. Gustav Mahler, Symphony no. 1 in D Major (Titan), Columbia Symphony Orchestra conducted
by Bruno Walter (Columbia ML 5794), vinyl recording. [F]
Mahler, Gustav. Symphony no. 1 in D Major (Titan), Columbia Symphony Orchestra conducted by Bruno Walter. Columbia ML 5794. Vinyl recording. [B]
29. Gustav Mahler, Symphony no.1 in D Major, Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Leonard
Bernstein, Deutsche Grammophon 431 036-2, 1989, compact disc. [UWO MCD 6866] [F]
Mahler, Gustav. Symphony no.1 in D Major, Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Leonard Bernstein.
Deutsche Grammophon 431 036-2, 1989. Compact disc. [UWO: MCD 6866] [B]
30. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272. In Konzert-Arien sung by Gundula Janowitz
with the Wiener Symphoniker conducted by Wilfried Boettcher, Deutsche Grammophon 449 723-2.,
recorded 1966, reissued 1966. Compact disc. [UWO MCD 11121] [F]
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272. In Konzert-Arien sung by Gundula Janowitz with the Wiener Symphoniker conducted by Wilfried Boettcher. Deutsche Grammophon 449 723-2. Recorded1966, reissued 1996. Compact disc. [UWO: MCD 11121] [B]
[Return to Index]
MUSIC, COMMERCIALLY-RECORDED: 'Accompanying Notes' or Booklet Information
The booklets which accompany CDs, the jackets/sleeves of vinyl LPs, and other "inserts" are legitimate sources of information, especially when the author's name is provided. Generally speaking, "signed" works are considered to be more reliable and scholarly than unsigned works. Again, the call number is optional. See also example no. 5 (above), which deals with a translated text.
31. Humphrey Searle, "Anton Webern" in accompanying booklet, Webern: CompleteWorks Opp. 1-31 performed by the Juilliard String Quartet and the London Sinfonietta conducted by Pierre Boulez, SONY Classical S3K 45845, 1991, compact disc. [UWO MCD 6153] [F]
Searle, Humphrey. "Anton Webern" essay in accompanying booklet, Webern: Complete WorksOpp. 1-31 performed by the Juilliard String Quartet and the London Sinfonietta conducted by Pierre Boulez. SONY Classical S3K 45845, 1991. Compact disc. [UWO MCD 6153] [B]
[Return to Index]
Citing an obituary in your essay? Follow the format for ARTICLES (above). It makes no difference whether the obituary comes from a newspaper or a journal, so long as you provide the full pagination.[Return to Index]
REPRINT EDITIONS - BOOKS
Works of special significance are often reprinted. One must give details of both the original and the reprint editions as shown by the following examples.
32. Allen Forte, The Compositional Matrix (Baldwin, N.Y.: Music Teachers National Association, 1961;
reprint, New York: Da Capo, 1971), 35-39 (page citations are to the reprint edition). [F]
Forte, Allen. The Compositonal Matrix. Baldwin, NY: Music Teachers National Association, 1961. Reprint: New York: Da Capo, 1971. [B]
REPRINT EDITIONS - SCORES
Many important music manuscripts have been made available in reproduction editions (see MUSIC, MANUSCRIPTS - FACSIMILE REPRODUCTIONS above); important (or otherwise interesting) editions of early published music have also been reprinted, and are of interest to performers and scholars alike.
33. William Boyce, Lyra Britannica: being a collection of songs, duets and cantatason various subjects. (London: I. Walsh, ; reprint, Cambridgeshire: King's Music, n.d.), 8-9 (page citations are to the reprint edition). [F]
Boyce, William. Lyra Britannica: being a collection of songs, duets and cantatas on varioussubjects. London: I. Walsh, . Reprint: Cambridgeshire: King's Music, n.d.. [B]
THESES AND DISSERTATIONS
These are technically unpublished works, written to fulfill degree requirements at a particular institution.
A thesis is written in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Masters degree:
34. Anthony Strangis, "Kurt Weill and opera for the people in Germany and America." (MM thesis,
University of Western Ontario, 1987), 179. [F]
Strangis, Anthony. "Kurt Weill and opera for the people in Germany and America." MM thesis, University of Western Ontario, 1987. [B]
A dissertation is written for a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy ) degree:
35. Alison Stonehouse, "Metastasio's Poetry and Drama in France, 1750-1800." (PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, 1997), 133. [F]
Stonehouse, Alison. "Metastasio's Poetry and Drama in France, 1750-1800." PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, 1997. [B]
[Return to Index]
See also example no. 7 above, which cites a translated text as given in a CD booklet.
36. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Essay on the true art of playing keyboard instruments, trans. and edited by William J. Mitchell (New York : W. W. Norton, ), 97. [F]
Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel. Essay on the true art of playing keyboard instruments. Translated and edited by William J. Mitchell. New York: Norton, . [B]
[Return to Index]
37. Richard Strauss, Salome, Royal Opera Covent Garden, conducted by Bernard Haitink, directed by Derek Bailey and Peter Hall, 105 min., Covent Garden Pioneer : Public Media Home Vision, SAL 090, ISBN 0-7800-1433-2, 1992, videocassette. [UWO MVD 26] [F]
Strauss, Richard. Salome, Royal Opera Covent Garden, conducted by Bernard Haitink, directed by Derek Bailey and Peter Hall. 105 min. Covent Garden Pioneer : Public Media Home Vision, SAL 090, ISBN 0-7800-1433-2,1992, videocassette. [UWO MVD 26] [B]
[Return to Index]
CITING ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS [WWW, CD-ROMS, email]
Citing electronic documents and information differs somewhat from citation formats for print materials. You still require the same basic information:
- author -- this can be a person, a company, a library
- responsibility -- (Photographer) or (Painter) or ??
- date -- of an art work, or date of copyright, or update
- title -- title of the web-page, CD-ROM index or database
- nature -- [Photograph] [Image of oil painting]
- format -- [CD-ROM] or [Online] or [Electronic] or [Internet]
- publisher -- data provider/company
- identifier -- database identifier/accession number of article
- date -- date you viewed/consulted the information
The date may be found on a CD-ROM disc, but when the CD-ROM is networked, you do not have the opportunity to see the actual disc. You may see a version number or copyright date as you log-in to a database or networked CD-ROM. Alternately, you may cite the date you accessed the product or service. The latest edition of Turabian does not require an "access date," however all other style guides do require this information.
Certain databases give accession numbers (e.g. ERIC), and those accession numbers should be included in your bibliographic citation. Essentially, you should provide sufficient information so that someone reading your essay can find the same information/site--which means that you should include the complete URL (beginning with: http://...) if you are citing a WWW-site. Given the "fugitive nature: of information on the WWW, if you are engaged in writing a thesis or dissertation, it would be wise to PRINT a copy of any needed web-document, and physically include it in your work (as an Appendix or other type of example).
Cite ONLY those electronic sources which are full-text or which provide other useful information. Indexing tools which provide citations only, such as the Music Index (print version), are not cited; do not cite electronic indexes, either -- unless they provide full-text articles!
FULL-TEXT ARTICLE, originally published in print form
If you are able to consult the print version of the article, then you can use the less-complicated citation format for ARTICLES (above). Electronic full-text articles may provide the pagination of the original, but rarely format the document with the original "page breaks", which has implications for citation format (meaning that you should count the number of paragraphs, and then specify them, by number).
38. Linda Hutcheon and Michael Hutcheon, "Opera and national identity: new Canadian opera,"
Canadian Theatre Review (Fall 1998): 5-8, Canadian Business and Current Affairs: par. 12, online, available: Silver Platter WebSPIRS, [database online, UWO], AN: 4413119, accessed 1999, December 12. [F]
Hutcheon, Linda and Michael Hutcheon. "Opera and national identity: new Canadian opera." Canadian Theatre Review (Fall, 1998): 5-8. Canadian Business and Current Affairs [database online, UWO], AN: 4413119. Accessed 1999, December 12.[B]
39. Joanne Close, "A case for arts education," Teach Magazine (Nov/Dec 1997), 26-29, para. 4, online, Canadian Business and Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO], AN 3701127, accessed 2000, January 5. [F]
Close, Joanne. "A case for arts education." Teach Magazine (Nov/DEC 1997): 26-29, CanadianBusiness and Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO], AN 3701127. Accessed January 5, 2000. [B]
40. Stephen McClatchie, “The 1889 Version of Mahler's First Symphony: A New Manuscript Source,”19th-Century Music 20 (Autumn, 1996): 102-3, http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0148-2076%28199623%2920%3A2%3C99%3AT1VOMF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C
(accessed November 21, 2007). [F]
McClatchie, Stephen. "The 1889 Version of Mahler's First Symphony: A New Manuscript Source." 19th-CenturyMusic 20 (Autumn, 1996): 99-124. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0148-2076%28199623%2920%3A2%3C99%3AT1VOMF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C
(accessed November 21, 2007). [B]
FULL-TEXT ARTICLE, originally published in French, translation available on WWW
41. Louise Lamothe, "Who remembers Disc-O-Logue?" interview by Richard Baillargeon, Rendez-vous 92 (2nd annual joint bulletin of Yé-Yé Publications and SARMA), 1992?, para. 5 online, translation courtesy The National Library of Canada, ©1997-08-12; available from: http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/discologue/intervie.htm, Internet, accessed 2000, December 17. [F]
Lamothe, Louise. "Who remembers Disc-O-Logue?" Interview by Richard Baillargeon. Rendezvous 92 (2nd annual joint bulletin of Yé-Yé Publications and SARMA), 1992? Translation courtesy The National Library of Canada, ©1997-08-12. Available from: http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/discologue/intervie.htm. Internet. Accessed 2000, December 17. [B]
PHOTOGRAPHS ON THE WWW
Not all sites provide the "required" information for a complete bibliographic citation. Check the list given on the previous page [under CITING ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS] and include as much information as is possible.
42. Lawrie Raskin, (Photographer), Living room in Glenn Gould's apartment on St. Clair Avenue
West in Toronto, January 20, 1983 [Photograph on Internet], Glenn Gould Archive, National Library
of Canada, available: http://www.gould.nlc-bnc.ca/exhi/images/ iv41.jpg, Internet, accessed 2000, January 7. [F]
Raskin, Lawrie. (Photographer). Living room in Glenn Gould's apartment on St. Clair AvenueWest in Toronto. [Photograph], [Internet] January 20, 1983. Glenn Gould Archive, National Library of Canada. Available: http://www.gould.nlc-bnc.ca/exhi/images/iv41.jpg. Internet. Accessed 2000, January 7. [B]
[Return to Index]
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER – the sample bibliography
Bibliographies are arranged in ALPHABETICAL ORDER - by the author’s surname. If, on occasion, you have NO author’s name - the convention is to use the TITLE (and IGNORE leading articles such as “the”, “a”) when placing the item alphabetically within your list.
Hanging indents are required. A bibliographic citation is single-spaced, with a double-space between citations.
Following is a sample bibliography, using items cited within this handout (as this is intended to be a sample, all preceding examples have NOT been included - however your bibliography must include all cited/footnoted references). I have included one additional item, to illustrate the convention used - to denote a second item by the same author (i.e. see the Mahler and McClatchie citations below).
Boyce, William. Lyra Britannica: being a collection of songs, duets and cantatas on various subjects. London: I. Walsh, . Reprint: Cambridgeshire: King's Music, n.d..
Carl, Robert. Review of Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality, by Susan McClary. Notes:Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 48 (June 1992): 1288-1291.
Close, Joanne. "A case for arts education." Teach Magazine (Nov/Dec1997): 26-29, Canadian Businessand Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO AN 3701127. Accessed January 5, 2000.
Il Codice Squarcialupi: MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca laurenziana DI Firenze. 15th century music
manuscript, facsimile reproduction in colour with accompanying volume of studies edited by F. Alberto
Gallo. Firenze: Giunti Barbera; [Lucca]: Libreria musicale italiana, 1992.
Elliker, Calvin. "The Collector and Reception History: The Case of Josiah Kirby Lilly." In Music Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel, edited by David Hunter. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1994: 189-203.
Forte, Allen. The Compositonal Matrix. Baldwin, NY: Music Teachers National Association, 1961. Reprint: New York: Da Capo, 1971.
Mahler, Gustav. "Symphony No.1." Copyist's score with annotations in Mahler's hand, ?1888-89, CDN-Lu OS-MD-694, v.1-2. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection, The Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
______. Symphony no.1 in D Major, Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Leonard Bernstein. Deutsche Grammophon 431 036-2, 1989. Compact disc. [UWO: MCD 6866]
McClary, Susan. Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.
McClatchie, Stephen. "The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection at the University of Western Ontario." Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 52 (December 1995): 385-406.
______. "'Liebste Justi': The Family Letters of Gustav Mahler." In Mahler Studies, ed. Stephen E. Hefling, 53-77. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 1980. S.v. "Auletta, Pietro," by Michael F. Robinson.
Raskin, Lawrie. (Photographer). Living room in Glenn Gould's apartment on St. Clair AvenueWest in Toronto. [Photograph], [Internet] January 20, 1983. Glenn Gould Archive, National Library of Canada. Available: http://www.gould.nlc-bnc.ca/exhi/images/iv41.jpg. Internet. Accessed 2000, January 7.
Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land." Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2. Edited by Max Friedlaender. Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?: 212-215. In Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V. Palisca, 338-342. New York: Norton, 1988.
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd rev. ed., 1964. S.v. "Ornamentation."
Stonehouse, Alison. "Metastasio's Poetry and Drama in France, 1750-1800." PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, 1997.
Strangis, Anthony. "Kurt Weill and opera for the people in Germany and America." MM thesis, University of Western Ontario, 1987.
Strauss, Richard. Salome, Royal Opera Covent Garden, conducted by Bernard Haitink, directed by Derek Bailey and Peter Hall. 105 min. Covent Garden Pioneer : Public Media Home Vision, SAL 090, ISBN 0-7800-1433-2, 1992, videocassette. [UWO MVD 26]
Revised and updated by: Lisa Rae Philpott, Music Reference Librarian, 2007/11/21. Re-formatted (again) using Drupal, 2010/03/19. Re-formatted (footnotes incorrectly displayed HANGING indents, uncertain as to timing of that change), 2014.7.4th.
Please send comments/corrections/suggestions to: Lisa Rae Philpott
For other uses, see Music (disambiguation).
A painting on an ancient Greek vase depicts a music lesson (c. 510 BCE).
|Medium||Sound, silence, time|
|Originating era||Paleolithic era|
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; there are solely instrumental pieces, solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine singing and instruments. The word derives from Greekμουσική (mousike; "art of the Muses"). See glossary of musical terminology.
In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form or cultural activity include the creation of works of music (songs, tunes, symphonies, and so on), the criticism of music, the study of the history of music, and the aesthetic examination of music. Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres" and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, "There is no noise, only sound."
The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. Indeed, throughout history, some new forms or styles of music have been criticized as "not being music", including Beethoven's Grosse Fugestring quartet in 1825, early jazz in the beginning of the 1900s and hardcore punk in the 1980s. There are many types of music, including popular music, traditional music, art music, music written for religious ceremonies and work songs such as chanteys. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions–such as Classical music symphonies from the 1700s and 1800s, through to spontaneously played improvisational music such as jazz, and avant-garde styles of chance-basedcontemporary music from the 20th and 21st centuries.
Music can be divided into genres (e.g., country music) and genres can be further divided into subgenres (e.g., country blues and pop country are two of the many country subgenres), although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to personal interpretation, and occasionally controversial. For example, it can be hard to draw the line between some early 1980s hard rock and heavy metal. Within the arts, music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art or as an auditory art. Music may be played or sung and heard live at a rock concert or orchestra performance, heard live as part of a dramatic work (a music theater show or opera), or it may be recorded and listened to on a radio, MP3 player, CD player, smartphone or as film score or TV show.
In many cultures, music is an important part of people's way of life, as it plays a key role in religious rituals, rite of passage ceremonies (e.g., graduation and marriage), social activities (e.g., dancing) and cultural activities ranging from amateur karaoke singing to playing in an amateur funk band or singing in a community choir. People may make music as a hobby, like a teen playing cello in a youth orchestra, or work as a professional musician or singer. The music industry includes the individuals who create new songs and musical pieces (such as songwriters and composers), individuals who perform music (which include orchestra, jazz band and rock band musicians, singers and conductors), individuals who record music (music producers and sound engineers), individuals who organize concert tours, and individuals who sell recordings and sheet music and scores to customers.
The word derives from Greekμουσική (mousike; "art of the Muses"). In Greek mythology, the nine Muses were the goddesses who inspired literature, science, and the arts and who were the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry, song-lyrics, and myths in the Greek culture. According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, the term "music" is derived from "mid-13c., musike, from Old Frenchmusique (12c.) and directly from Latin musica "the art of music," also including poetry (also [the] source of Spanish musica, Italian musica, Old High Germanmosica, German Musik, Dutch muziek, Danish musik)." This is derived from the "...Greek mousike (techne) "(art) of the Muses," from fem. of mousikos "pertaining to the Muses," from Mousa "Muse" (see muse (n.)). Modern spelling [dates] from [the] 1630s. In classical Greece, [the term "music" refers to] any art in which the Muses presided, but especially music and lyric poetry."
As a form of art or entertainment
Music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. When music was only available through sheet music scores, such as during the Classical and Romantic eras, music lovers would buy the sheet music of their favourite pieces and songs so that they could perform them at home on the piano. With the advent of sound recording, records of popular songs, rather than sheet music became the dominant way that music lovers would enjoy their favourite songs. With the advent of home tape recorders in the 1980s and digital music in the 1990s, music lovers could make tapes or playlists of their favourite songs and take them with them on a portable cassette player or MP3 player. Some music lovers create mix tapes of their favorite songs, which serve as a "self-portrait, a gesture of friendship, prescription for an ideal party... [and] an environment consisting solely of what is most ardently loved."
Amateur musicians can compose or perform music for their own pleasure, and derive their income elsewhere. Professional musicians are employed by a range of institutions and organisations, including armed forces (in marching bands, concert bands and popular music groups), churches and synagogues, symphony orchestras, broadcasting or film production companies, and music schools. Professional musicians sometimes work as freelancers or session musicians, seeking contracts and engagements in a variety of settings. There are often many links between amateur and professional musicians. Beginning amateur musicians take lessons with professional musicians. In community settings, advanced amateur musicians perform with professional musicians in a variety of ensembles such as community concert bands and community orchestras.
A distinction is often made between music performed for a live audience and music that is performed in a studio so that it can be recorded and distributed through the music retail system or the broadcasting system. However, there are also many cases where a live performance in front of an audience is also recorded and distributed. Live concert recordings are popular in both classical music and in popular music forms such as rock, where illegally taped live concerts are prized by music lovers. In the jam band scene, live, improvised jam sessions are preferred to studio recordings.
Main article: Musical composition
"Composition" is the act or practice of creating a song, an instrumental music piece, a work with both singing and instruments, or another type of music. In many cultures, including Western classical music, the act of composing also includes the creation of music notation, such as a sheet music "score", which is then performed by the composer or by other singers or musicians. In popular music and traditional music, the act of composing, which is typically called songwriting, may involve the creation of a basic outline of the song, called the lead sheet, which sets out the melody, lyrics and chord progression. In classical music, the composer typically orchestrates his or her own compositions, but in musical theatre and in pop music, songwriters may hire an arranger to do the orchestration. In some cases, a songwriter may not use notation at all, and instead compose the song in her mind and then play or record it from memory. In jazz and popular music, notable recordings by influential performers are given the weight that written scores play in classical music.
Even when music is notated relatively precisely, as in classical music, there are many decisions that a performer has to make, because notation does not specify all of the elements of music precisely. The process of deciding how to perform music that has been previously composed and notated is termed "interpretation". Different performers' interpretations of the same work of music can vary widely, in terms of the tempos that are chosen and the playing or singing style or phrasing of the melodies. Composers and songwriters who present their own music are interpreting their songs, just as much as those who perform the music of others. The standard body of choices and techniques present at a given time and a given place is referred to as performance practice, whereas interpretation is generally used to mean the individual choices of a performer.
Although a musical composition often uses musical notation and has a single author, this is not always the case. A work of music can have multiple composers, which often occurs in popular music when a band collaborates to write a song, or in musical theatre, when one person writes the melodies, a second person writes the lyrics, and a third person orchestrates the songs. In some styles of music, such as the blues, a composer/songwriter may create, perform and record new songs or pieces without ever writing them down in music notation. A piece of music can also be composed with words, images, or computer programs that explain or notate how the singer or musician should create musical sounds. Examples range from avant-garde music that uses graphic notation, to text compositions such as Aus den sieben Tagen, to computer programs that select sounds for musical pieces. Music that makes heavy use of randomness and chance is called aleatoric music, and is associated with contemporary composers active in the 20th century, such as John Cage, Morton Feldman, and Witold Lutosławski. A more commonly known example of chance-based music is the sound of wind chimes jingling in a breeze.
The study of composition has traditionally been dominated by examination of methods and practice of Western classical music, but the definition of composition is broad enough to include the creation of popular music and traditional music songs and instrumental pieces as well as spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and African percussionists such as Ewe drummers.
Main article: Musical notation
In the 2000s, music notation typically means the written expression of music notes and rhythms on paper using symbols. When music is written down, the pitches and rhythm of the music, such as the notes of a melody, are notated. Music notation also often provides instructions on how to perform the music. For example, the sheet music for a song may state that the song is a "slow blues" or a "fast swing", which indicates the tempo and the genre. To read music notation, a person must have an understanding of music theory, harmony and the performance practice associated with a particular song or piece's genre.
Written notation varies with style and period of music. In the 2000s, notated music is produced as sheet music or, for individuals with computer scorewriter programs, as an image on a computer screen. In ancient times, music notation was put onto stone or clay tablets. To perform music from notation, a singer or instrumentalist requires an understanding of the rhythmic and pitch elements embodied in the symbols and the performance practice that is associated with a piece of music or a genre. In genres requiring musical improvisation, the performer often plays from music where only the chord changes and form of the song are written, requiring the performer to have a great understanding of the music's structure, harmony and the styles of a particular genre (e.g., jazz or country music).
In Western art music, the most common types of written notation are scores, which include all the music parts of an ensemble piece, and parts, which are the music notation for the individual performers or singers. In popular music, jazz, and blues, the standard musical notation is the lead sheet, which notates the melody, chords, lyrics (if it is a vocal piece), and structure of the music. Fake books are also used in jazz; they may consist of lead sheets or simply chord charts, which permit rhythm section members to improvise an accompaniment part to jazz songs. Scores and parts are also used in popular music and jazz, particularly in large ensembles such as jazz "big bands." In popular music, guitarists and electric bass players often read music notated in tablature (often abbreviated as "tab"), which indicates the location of the notes to be played on the instrument using a diagram of the guitar or bass fingerboard. Tabulature was also used in the Baroque era to notate music for the lute, a stringed, fretted instrument.
Main article: Musical improvisation
Musical improvisation is the creation of spontaneous music, often within (or based on) a pre-existing harmonic framework or chord progression. Improvisation is the act of instantaneous composition by performers, where compositional techniques are employed with or without preparation. Improvisation is a major part of some types of music, such as blues, jazz, and jazz fusion, in which instrumental performers improvise solos, melody lines and accompaniment parts. In the Western art music tradition, improvisation was an important skill during the Baroque era and during the Classical era. In the Baroque era, performers improvised ornaments and basso continuo keyboard players improvised chord voicings based on figured bass notation. In the Classical era, solo performers and singers improvised virtuoso cadenzas during concerts. However, in the 20th and early 21st century, as "common practice" Western art music performance became institutionalized in symphony orchestras, opera houses and ballets, improvisation has played a smaller role. At the same time, some modern composers have increasingly included improvisation in their creative work. In Indian classical music, improvisation is a core component and an essential criterion of performances.
Main article: Music theory
Music theory encompasses the nature and mechanics of music. It often involves identifying patterns that govern composers' techniques and examining the language and notation of music. In a grand sense, music theory distills and analyzes the parameters or elements of music – rhythm, harmony (harmonic function), melody, structure, form, and texture. Broadly, music theory may include any statement, belief, or conception of or about music. People who study these properties are known as music theorists. Some have applied acoustics, human physiology, and psychology to the explanation of how and why music is perceived.
Main article: Aspect of music
Music has many different fundamentals or elements. Depending on the definition of "element" being used, these can include: pitch, beat or pulse, tempo, rhythm, melody, harmony, texture, style, allocation of voices, timbre or color, dynamics, expression, articulation, form and structure. The elements of music feature prominently in the music curriculums of Australia, UK and US. All three curriculums identify pitch, dynamics, timbre and texture as elements, but the other identified elements of music are far from universally agreed. Below is a list of the three official versions of the "elements of music":
- Australia: pitch, timbre, texture, dynamics and expression, rhythm, form and structure.
- UK: pitch, timbre, texture, dynamics, duration, tempo, structure.
- USA: pitch, timbre, texture, dynamics, rhythm, form, harmony, style/articulation.
In relation to the UK curriculum, in 2013 the term: "appropriate musical notations" was added to their list of elements and the title of the list was changed from the "elements of music" to the "inter-related dimensions of music". The inter-related dimensions of music are listed as: pitch, duration, dynamics, tempo, timbre, texture, structure and appropriate musical notations.
The phrase "the elements of music" is used in a number of different contexts. The two most common contexts can be differentiated by describing them as the "rudimentary elements of music" and the "perceptual elements of music".
In the 1800s, the phrases "the elements of music" and "the rudiments of music" were used interchangeably. The elements described in these documents refer to aspects of music that are needed in order to become a musician, Recent writers such as Estrella  seem to be using the phrase "elements of music" in a similar manner. A definition which most accurately reflects this usage is: "the rudimentary principles of an art, science, etc.: the elements of grammar." The UK's curriculum switch to the "inter-related dimensions of music" seems to be a move back to using the rudimentary elements of music.
Since the emergence of the study of psychoacoustics in the 1930s, most lists of elements of music have related more to how we hear music than how we learn to play it or study it. C.E. Seashore, in his book Psychology of Music, identified four "psychological attributes of sound". These were: "pitch, loudness, time, and timbre" (p. 3). He did not call them the "elements of music" but referred to them as "elemental components" (p. 2). Nonetheless these elemental components link precisely with four of the most common musical elements: "Pitch" and "timbre" match exactly, "loudness" links with dynamics and "time" links with the time-based elements of rhythm, duration and tempo. This usage of the phrase "the elements of music" links more closely with Webster's New 20th Century Dictionary definition of an element as: "a substance which cannot be divided into a simpler form by known methods" and educational institutions' lists of elements generally align with this definition as well.
Although writers of lists of "rudimentary elements of music" can vary their lists depending on their personal (or institutional) priorities, the perceptual elements of music should consist of an established (or proven) list of discrete elements which can be independently manipulated to achieve an intended musical effect. It seems at this stage that there is still research to be done in this area.
Analysis of styles
Some styles of music place an emphasis on certain of these fundamentals, while others place less emphasis on certain elements. To give one example, while Bebop-era jazz makes use of very complex chords, including altered dominants and challenging chord progressions, with chords changing two or more times per bar and keys changing several times in a tune, funk places most of its emphasis on rhythm and groove, with entire songs based around a vamp on a single chord. While Romantic era classical music from the mid- to late-1800s makes great use of dramatic changes of dynamics, from whispering pianissimo sections to thunderous fortissimo sections, some entire Baroque dance suites for harpsichord from the early 1700s may use a single dynamic. To give another example, while some art music pieces, such as symphonies are very long, some pop songs are just a few minutes long.
Description of elements
Pitch and melody
Pitch is an aspect of a sound that we can hear, reflecting whether one musical sound, note or tone is "higher" or "lower" than another musical sound, note or tone. We can talk about the highness or lowness of pitch in the more general sense, such as the way a listener hears a piercingly high piccolo note or whistling tone as higher in pitch than a deep thump of a bass drum. We also talk about pitch in the precise sense associated with musical melodies, basslines and chords. Precise pitch can only be determined in sounds that have a frequency that is clear and stable enough to distinguish from noise. For example, it is much easier for listeners to discern the pitch of a single note played on a piano than to try to discern the pitch of a crash cymbal that is struck.
A melody (also called a "tune") is a series of pitches (notes) sounding in succession (one after the other), often in a rising and falling pattern. The notes of a melody are typically created using pitch systems such as scales or modes. Melodies also often contain notes from the chords used in the song. The melodies in simple folk songs and traditional songs may use only the notes of a single scale, the scale associated with the tonic note or key of a given song. For example, a folk song in the key of C (also referred to as C major) may have a melody that uses only the notes of the C major scale (the individual notes C, D, E, F, G, A, B and C; these are the "white notes" on a piano keyboard. On the other hand, Bebop-era jazz from the 1940s and contemporary music from the 20th and 21st centuries may use melodies with many chromatic notes (i.e., notes in addition to the notes of the major scale; on a piano, a chromatic scale would include all the notes on the keyboard, including the "white notes" and "black notes" and unusual scales, such as the whole tone scale (a whole tone scale in the key of C would contain the notes C, D, E, F♯, G♯ and A♯). A low, deep musical line played by bass instruments such as double bass, electric bass or tuba is called a bassline.
Harmony and chords
Harmony refers to the "vertical" sounds of pitches in music, which means pitches that are played or sung together at the same time to create a chord. Usually this means the notes are played at the same time, although harmony may also be implied by a melody that outlines a harmonic structure (i.e., by using melody notes that are played one after the other, outlining the notes of a chord). In music written using the system of major-minor tonality ("keys"), which includes most classical music written from 1600 to 1900 and most Western pop, rock and traditional music, the key of a piece determines the scale used, which centres around the "home note" or tonic of the key. Simple classical pieces and many pop and traditional music songs are written so that all the music is in a single key. More complex Classical, pop and traditional music songs and pieces may have two keys (and in some cases three or more keys). Classical music from the Romantic era (written from about 1820–1900) often contains multiple keys, as does jazz, especially Bebop jazz from the 1940s, in which the key or "home note" of a song may change every four bars or even every two bars.
Rhythm is the arrangement of sounds and silences in time. Meter animates time in regular pulse groupings, called measures or bars, which in Western classical, popular and traditional music often group notes in sets of two (e.g., 2/4 time), three (e.g., 3/4 time, also known as Waltz time, or 3/8 time), or four (e.g., 4/4 time). Meters are made easier to hear because songs and pieces often (but not always) place an emphasis on the first beat of each grouping. Notable exceptions exist, such as the backbeat used in much Western pop and rock, in which a song that uses a measure that consists of four beats (called 4/4 time or common time) will have accents on beats two and four, which are typically performed by the drummer on the snare drum, a loud and distinctive-sounding percussion instrument. In pop and rock, the rhythm parts of a song are played by the rhythm section, which includes chord-playing instruments (e.g., electric guitar, acoustic guitar, piano, or other keyboard instruments), a bass instrument (typically electric bass or for some styles such as jazz and bluegrass, double bass) and a drum kit player.
Musical texture is the overall sound of a piece of music or song. The texture of a piece or sing is determined by how the melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic materials are combined in a composition, thus determining the overall nature of the sound in a piece. Texture is often described in regard to the density, or thickness, and range, or width, between lowest and highest pitches, in relative terms as well as more specifically distinguished according to the number of voices, or parts, and the relationship between these voices (see common types below). For example, a thick texture contains many 'layers' of instruments. One of these layers could be a string section, or another brass. The thickness also is affected by the amount and the richness of the instruments. Texture is commonly described according to the number of and relationship between parts or lines of music:
- monophony: a single melody (or "tune") with neither instrumental accompaniment nor a harmony part. A mother singing a lullaby to her baby would be an example.
- heterophony: two or more instruments or singers playing/singing the same melody, but with each performer slightly varying the rhythm or speed of the melody or adding different ornaments to the melody. Two bluegrassfiddlers playing the same traditional fiddle tune together will typically each vary the melody a bit and each add different ornaments.
- polyphony: multiple independent melody lines that interweave together, which are sung or played at the same time. Choral music written in the Renaissance music era was typically written in this style. A round, which is a song such as "Row, Row, Row Your Boat", which different groups of singers all start to sing at a different time, is a simple example of polyphony.
- homophony: a clear melody supported by chordalaccompaniment. Most Western popular music songs from the 19th century onward are written in this texture.
Music that contains a large number of independent parts (e.g., a double concerto accompanied by 100 orchestral instruments with many interweaving melodic lines) is generally said to have a "thicker" or "denser" texture than a work with few parts (e.g., a solo flute melody accompanied by a single cello).
Timbre or "tone color"
Timbre, sometimes called "color" or "tone color" is the quality or sound of a voice or instrument. Timbre is what makes a particular musical sound different from another, even when they have the same pitch and loudness. For example, a 440 Hz A note sounds different when it is played on oboe, piano, violin or electric guitar. Even if different players of the same instrument play the same note, their notes might sound different due to differences in instrumental technique (e.g., different embouchures), different types of accessories (e.g., mouthpieces for brass players, reeds for oboe and bassoon players) or strings made out of different materials for string players (e.g., gut strings versus steel strings). Even two instrumentalists playing the same note on the same instrument (one after the other) may sound different due to different ways of playing the instrument (e.g., two string players might hold the bow differently).
The physical characteristics of sound that determine the perception of timbre include the spectrum, envelope and overtones of a note or musical sound. For electric instruments developed in the 20th century, such as electric guitar, electric bass and electric piano, the performer can also change the tone by adjusting equalizer controls, tone controls on the instrument, and by using electronic effects units such as distortion pedals. The tone of the electric Hammond organ is controlled by adjusting drawbars.
Expressive qualities are those elements in music that create change in music without changing the main pitches or substantially changing the rhythms of the melody and its accompaniment. Performers, including singers and instrumentalists, can add musical expression to a song or piece by adding phrasing, by adding effects such as vibrato (with voice and some instruments, such as guitar, violin, brass instruments and woodwinds), dynamics (the loudness or softness of piece or a section of it), tempo fluctuations (e.g., ritardando or accelerando, which are, respectively slowing down and speeding up the tempo), by adding pauses or fermatas on a cadence, and by changing the articulation of the notes (e.g., making notes more pronounced or accented, by making notes more legato, which means smoothly connected, or by making notes shorter).
Expression is achieved through the manipulation of pitch (such as inflection, vibrato, slides etc.), volume (dynamics, accent, tremolo etc.), duration (tempo fluctuations, rhythmic changes, changing note duration such as with legato and staccato, etc.), timbre (e.g. changing vocal timbre from a light to a resonant voice) and sometimes even texture (e.g. doubling the bass note for a richer effect in a piano piece). Expression therefore can be seen as a manipulation of all elements in order to convey "an indication of mood, spirit, character etc."  and as such cannot be included as a unique perceptual element of music, although it can be considered an important rudimentary element of music.
See also: Strophic form, Binary form, Ternary form, Rondo form, Variation (music), and Musical development
In music, form describes how the overall structure or plan of a song or piece of music, and it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections. In the early 20th century, Tin Pan Alley songs and Broadway musical songs were often in AABA32 bar form, in which the A sections repeated the same eight bar melody and the B section provided a contrasting melody and/or harmony for 8 bars. From the 1960s onward, Western pop and rock songs are often in verse-chorus form, which is based around a sequence of verse and chorus ("refrain") sections, with new lyrics for most verses and repeating lyrics for the choruses. Popular music often makes use of strophic form, sometimes in conjunction with the twelve bar blues.
In the tenth edition of The Oxford Companion to Music, Percy Scholes defines musical form as "a series of strategies designed to find a successful mean between the opposite extremes of unrelieved repetition and unrelieved alteration." Examples of common forms of Western music include the fugue, the invention, sonata-allegro, canon, strophic, theme and variations, and rondo. Scholes states that European classical music had only six stand-alone forms: simple binary, simple ternary, compound binary, rondo, air with variations, and fugue (although musicologist Alfred Mann emphasized that the fugue is primarily a method of composition that has sometimes taken on certain structural conventions.)
Where a piece cannot readily be broken down into sectional units (though it might borrow some form from a poem, story or programme), it is said to be through-composed. Such is often the case with a fantasia, prelude, rhapsody, etude (or study), symphonic poem, Bagatelle, impromptu, etc. Professor Charles Keil classified forms and formal detail as "sectional, developmental, or variational."
- Sectional form
This form is built from a sequence of clear-cut units that may be referred to by letters but also often have generic names such as introduction and coda, exposition, development and recapitulation, verse, chorus or refrain, and bridge. Introductions and codas, when they are no more than that, are frequently excluded from formal analysis. All such units may typically be eight measures long. Sectional forms include:
- Strophic form
This form is defined by its "unrelieved repetition" (AAAA...).
Medley, potpourri is the extreme opposite, that of "unrelieved variation": it is simply an indefinite sequence of self-contained sections (ABCD...), sometimes with repeats (AABBCCDD...). Examples include orchestral overtures, which are sometimes no more than a string of the best tunes of the musical theatre show or opera to come.
- Binary form
This form uses two sections (AB...), each often repeated (AABB...). In 18th-century Western classical music, "simple binary" form was often used for dances and carried with it the convention that the two sections should be in different musical keys but same rhythm, duration and tone. The alternation of two tunes gives enough variety to permit a dance to be extended for as long as desired.
- Ternary form
This form has three parts. In Western classical music a simple ternary form has a third section that is a recapitulation of the first (ABA). Often, the first section is repeated (AABA). This approach was popular in the 18th-century operatic aria, and was called da capo (i.e. "repeat from the top") form. Later, it gave rise to the 32-bar song, with the B section then often referred to as the "middle eight". A song has more need than a dance of a self-contained form with a beginning and an end of course.
- Rondo form
This form has a recurring theme alternating with different (usually contrasting) sections called "episodes". It may be asymmetrical (ABACADAEA) or symmetrical (ABACABA). A recurring section, especially the main theme, is sometimes more thoroughly varied, or else one episode may be a "development" of it. A similar arrangement is the ritornello form of the Baroque concerto grosso. Arch form (ABCBA) resembles a symmetrical rondo without intermediate repetitions of the main theme. It is normally used in a round.
- Variational form
Variational forms are those in which variation is an important formative element.
Theme and Variations: a theme, which in itself can be of any shorter form (binary, ternary, etc.), forms the only "section" and is repeated indefinitely (as in strophic form) but is varied each time (A, B, A, F, Z, A), so as to make a sort of sectional chain form. An important variant of this, much used in 17th-century British music and in the Passacaglia and Chaconne, was that of the ground bass – a repeating bass theme or basso ostinato over and around which the rest of the structure unfolds, often, but not always, spinning polyphonic or contrapuntal threads, or improvising divisions and descants. This is said by Scholes (1977) to be the form par excellence of unaccompanied or accompanied solo instrumental music. The Rondo is often found with sections varied (AA1BA2CA3BA4) or (ABA1CA2B1A).
- Developmental form
Developmental forms are built directly from smaller units, such as motifs. A well-known Classical piece with a motif is Beethoven's fifth symphony, which starts with three short repeated notes and then a long note. In Classical pieces that are based on motifs, the motif is usually combined, varied and worked out in different ways, perhaps having a symmetrical or arch-like underpinning and a progressive development from beginning to end. By far the most important developmental form in Western classical music is Sonata form. This form, also known as sonata form, first movement form, compound binary, ternary and a variety of other names,[example needed] developed from the binary-formed dance movement described above but is almost always cast in a greater ternary form having the nominal subdivisions of Exposition, Development and Recapitulation. Usually, but not always, the "A" parts (Exposition and Recapitulation, respectively) may be subdivided into two or three themes or theme groups which are taken asunder and recombined to form the "B" part (the development) – thus e. g. (AabB[dev. of a and/or b]A1ab1+coda). This developmental form is generally confined to certain sections of the piece, as to the middle section of the first movement of a sonata, though 19th-century composers such as Berlioz, Liszt and Wagner made valiant efforts to derive large-scale works purely or mainly from the motif.
Main article: History of music
Prehistoric music can only be theorized based on findings from paleolithic archaeology sites. Flutes are often discovered, carved from bones in which lateral holes have been pierced; these are thought to have been blown at one end like the Japanese shakuhachi. The Divje Babe flute, carved from a cave bearfemur, is thought to be at least 40,000 years old. Instruments such as the seven-holed flute and various types of stringed instruments, such as the Ravanahatha, have been recovered from the Indus Valley Civilizationarchaeological sites. India has one of the oldest musical traditions in the world—references to Indian classical music (marga) are found in the Vedas, ancient scriptures of the Hindu tradition. The earliest and largest collection of prehistoric musical instruments was found in China and dates back to between 7000 and 6600 BC. The "Hurrian Hymn to Nikkal", found on clay tablets that date back to approximately 1400 BC, is the oldest surviving notated work of music.
Main article: Music of Egypt
The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods, Thoth, with the invention of music, with Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilize the world. The earliest material and representational evidence of Egyptian musical instruments dates to the Predynastic period, but the evidence is more securely attested in the Old Kingdom when harps, flutes and double clarinets were played. Percussion instruments, lyres and lutes were added to orchestras by the Middle Kingdom. Cymbals frequently accompanied music and dance, much as they still do in Egypt today. Egyptian folk music, including the traditional Sufi dhikr rituals, are the closest contemporary music genre to ancient Egyptian music, having preserved many of its features, rhythms and instruments.