How To Write Bibliography Cards In Mla Format

 

Article in an encyclopedia with an authorPlease note that all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short, single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you.

Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put a hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, but indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2″ (1.25 cm) from the left margin.

In your Bibliography, Works Cited, or References page, you must include all of the above MLA parenthetical citation.

When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.

Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook.

1. Book with one author or editor:

Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist.
Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005.

Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History. New York: Schocken, 2002.

Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal
and Still Killing Us. N.p.: Rodale, 2003.
N.p. = No place of publication indicated.
Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from
4000 BC to the Present. Vercelli: White Star, 2004.

Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix. New York:
Hyperion, 2005.

Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie & Video Guide 2002 Edition. New York: New American, 2001.

Meidenbauer, Jörg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times.
Lisse: Rebo, 2004.

Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel. Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001.

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. New York: Scholastic, 1999.

—. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000.

Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of
Paul O’Neill. New York: Simon, 2004.

If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work.

Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.

(Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses)

Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses. New York: Norton, 1999.

(Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion)

Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion. New York: Oxford UP, 1986.

(Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred)

Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred. London: Harper, 1994.

(Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart)

Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart. New York: Norton, 1995.

(Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars)

Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars. New York: Norton, 1998.

2. Book with two authors or editors:

Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International
Environment of Business. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002.

Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey
of Spirit. Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal
Jubilee. New York: Rizzoli, 1999.

Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy
of Pierre Elliott Trudeau. Toronto: Random, 1998.

Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed.
2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005.

Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.

Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life. New York: Knopf, 2005.

Book prepared for publication by two editors:

Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.
Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington
Square, 1992.

3. Book with three authors or editors:

Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special
Forces. New York: Putnam, 2002.

Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College
Students. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005.

Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go:
Germany 1998. New York: St. Martin’s, 1998.

Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815.
9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002.

Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: 
A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature. Vancouver: Greystone, 2002.

4. Book with more than three authors or editors:

You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae, meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named.

Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner.
Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. New York: Perigee, 2003.
or,
Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. New York:
Perigee, 2003.

Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures.
Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000.

Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian
Facts and Dates. 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005.
or,
Pound, Richard W., et al., eds.  Canadian Facts and Dates. 3rd ed. Markham, ON:
2005.

Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary
Series for ESL. Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989.

5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors:

McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous:
A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions
from 1256 A.D. to the Present. New York: Barnes, 1994.

O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger:
True Stories of Trouble and Survival. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999.

Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa.
Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997.

Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by.

6. Book with no author or editor stated:

Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events
That Shaped Our Identity. Toronto: Key, 1999.

Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step. Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001.

The Movie Book. London: Phaidon, 1999.

With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913. Photographs of
Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004.

7. Book with one author, translated by another:

Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography. Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber.
New York: Metropolitan, 1998.

8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers:

Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man?
3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Newell.
New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7.

Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival.
Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly.
San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22.

9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated:

“Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1997 ed.

“Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places. 2000 ed.

10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author:

If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication.

Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed.

Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Ed. D.L. Birchfield.
11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997.

11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:

“100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75.

“Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6.

“E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4.

“McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.”
National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18.

“Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star
25 Nov. 2004: A18.

“Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6.

12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors:

Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive.
Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full.
Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March.  If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005.

Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed.

Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you.

An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently:

Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in
Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265.

The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end.

Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49.

Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London]
25 Jan. 2001: 36.

Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly
Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+.

Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+.

Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+.

Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News
15 Jan. 2006: A6.

Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88.

Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News
10 Oct. 2004: A1-2.

Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Town & Country Travel
Fall 2004: 102-111.

Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.”
Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45.

Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb.
2003: 18-22.

Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean
Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+.

Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2.

Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18.

Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+.

Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud,
Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.
or use “et al.”:
Wolanski, Eric, et al.  “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist
Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.

13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series):

Suggested citation example from SIRS:
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.”
Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK. (Boca Raton, FL:
Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20.
Example in MLA style:
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.”
Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work. Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5.
Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20.

14. Advertisement:

Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited.
Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb. 2005 <http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx>.

GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92.

IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 29 Oct. 2002: B7.

Toyota. Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30.

15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated:

Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring. Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997.

16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author:

Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software. Calgary, AB:
Springbank, 1994.

17. Book, movie or film review:

May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler).
Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The
Dark Lady of DNA, by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66.

Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase, by Karen Levine.
Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36.

Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The 
Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder.
Discover Nov. 2002: 77.

Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn
Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37.

Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry
Finn, by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea,
1986, 31-44.

Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within, comp.
and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998:
629-30.

Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov,
Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003, by Emma Gilligan.
New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33.

Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida, dir. Julie Taymor. National
Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+.

Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated
Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20.

Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams, by
Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+.

18. CD-ROM, DVD:

A Place in the Sun. Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001.

Encarta 2004 Reference Library. CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003.

Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32. Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003.

LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald
7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42.

Links 2003: Championship Courses. CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002.

YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition, 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal:
Tele-Direct, 1998.

19. Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.:

Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times,
Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065
197653951002.

20. Definition from a dictionary:

When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary.
“Mug.” Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the
English Language. Canadian ed. 1988.

21. Film, Movie:

Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. You may add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl.
Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.

Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book
by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005.

Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf.
Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.

Monster-in-Law. Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein,
Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005.

Nanny McPhee. Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna
Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson,
Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005.

One Hour Photo. Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod. Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler,
and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002.

Titanic. Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth
Century Fox and Paramount, 1997.

The Tuxedo. Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder.
Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002.

22. Government publication:

Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication, underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date.
Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength:
Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and
Government Services Canada, 2000.

United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight –
Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human
Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures. Washington:
GPO, 2000.
Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents.

In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers.

Example:

United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996.
Cite simply as:
Cong. Rec. 31 July 1996: 104-193.

For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed.

23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources:

a. Internet citation for an advertisement

b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated

c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia

d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated

e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal

f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.

g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserver, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail

h. Internet citation for an online government publication

i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor

j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site

k. Internet citation for a software download

l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor

m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another
Basic components of an Internet citation:
1) Author.

2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks.

3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project, underlined.

4) Editor of Project.

5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious.

6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified.

7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site.

8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site).

9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets.

Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons.
Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL.

If the URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities. Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock. Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential.

a. Internet citation for an advertisement:

IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003 <http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ibm.htm>.

TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 <http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm>.

b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated:

Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online.
24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html>.

Clifford, Erin. “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/neuro/review/>.

Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada. Ottawa:
Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf>.

Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001.
National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/
2001/02/0209_mandela.html>.

Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips
Newsletter. Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.netmechanic.com/
news/vol6/html_no20.htm>.
If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.:
Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post. 8 May 2002.
SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004
<http://www.sirs.com>.

Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in the source.

Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News. 12 Jan. 2003.
eLibrary Canada.  Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006.
<http://elibrary.bigchalk.com/ce/canada>.

Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school.

Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News. 12 Jan. 2003.
eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006. <http://www.proquestk12.com>.

c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia:

Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761558397/Ho_Chi_Minh.html>.

“Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
9 Oct. 2005 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629>.

“Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2005.  Encyclopædia Britannica.
8 Oct. 2005  <http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567>.

d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:

“Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education.7 June 2003.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm>.

“Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com. 8 Dec. 2003.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html>.

e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal:

Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in
Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003
<http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1540-4560.00260>.

f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.:

“Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online. 1993-2003.
Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 <http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/
political/Afghan_etc.htm>.

Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts.
2000. 7 June 2003 <http://www.bluemountain.com/
display.pd?path=35041&bfrom=1&prodnum=3032062&>.

Lee, Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com. Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://www.journalismjobs.com/lawrence_lee.cfm>.

Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com.
25 Apr. 2004 <http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710&RFID=814547>.

“Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State
Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://us.history.wisc.edu/
hist102/photos/html/1023.html>.

g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail:

Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998.  EBSCOhost Mailer.
E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003.

Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003.

“NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005
LII Team <[email protected]>.

PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith.
10 Oct. 2005.

h. Internet citation for an online government publication:

Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board
Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector.
6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/
oagtbs_e.asp>.

United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights.
29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/
charters_of_freedom/bill_of_rights/bill_of_rights.html>.

i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor:

Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses,
Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://www.opinionjournal.com/la/responses.html?article_id=110003579>.

Seaside Harry. “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online
posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298&highlight=>.

j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site:

The MAD Scientist Network. 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U
School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. <http://www.madsci.org>.

O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. U of St. Andrews,
Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/
Mathematicians/Wilkins.html>.

Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty
Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002.
13 Apr. 2006 <http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/>.

Savill, R. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page. 23 Oct. 2000.
12 Apr. 2006 <http://www.btinternet.com/~dreklind/threetwo/Biograph.htm>.

Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch.
10 Apr. 2006 <http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html>.

Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?”
Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and
Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?
Page=countries&Area=israel&ID=IA1699>.

k. Internet citation for a software download:

It is not essential to include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor.
RAMeSize. Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004
<http://www.pcworld.com/downloads/file_download.asp?fid=7605>.

l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor:

Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of
Abraham Lincoln. Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP,
1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://showcase.netins.net/
web/creative/lincoln/speeches/gettysburg.htm>.

m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another:

Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions & Enchiridion. Trans. and ed.
Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/
confessions_enchiridion.txt>.

24. Interview:

Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006
<http://www.pm.gov.uk/output/Page3797.asp>.

Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://www.time.com/time/europe/magazine/2003/0224/cover/interview.html>.

Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006.

Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006.

Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.

25. Lecture:

State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date.

Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003.

26. Letter, editorial:

An editorial:
Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug. 2002: 4.
Letter to the Editor:
Lange, Rick. “U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo
News 23 Jan. 2005: I5.

Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16.

Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter.
New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37.
Reply to a letter to the Editor:
Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1.
A letter you received from John Smith:
Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005.
Published letter in a collection:
Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885.
Letter 850318 of Mark Twain. Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://www.boondocksnet.com/twaintexts/letters/letter850318.html>.

27. Map or Chart:

Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map.
2004 Andex Chart. Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004.

Canada. Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003.

“Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico. Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005.

28. Musical composition:

Components:
1) Name of composer.
2) Title of ballet, music piece or opera, underlined,
3) Form, number and key not underlined.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Für Elise.

Strauss, Richard. Träumerei, op. 9, no. 4.
Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underlined title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication.
Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1. New York: Fischer, 1918.

Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene. 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950.

Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye. London: Paxton, 1953.

Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65. 1819. London: Harris, 1933.

29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form

Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located.
Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family. 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection,
Kleinburg, ON.

Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss. 1909. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse
Cemetery, Paris.

The Great Sphinx. [c. 2500 BC]. Giza.

Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque. 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris.

Raphael. The School of Athens. 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace,
Rome.

Rude, François. La Marseillaise. 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underlined title of artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is housed, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number.
Abell, Sam. Japan. 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones.
By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999.
232.

Carr, Emily. A Haida Village. [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection,
Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection. By Jean Blodgett,
et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134.

Käsebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal. [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society,
Bath. A Basic History of Art. By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412.

Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda). [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum,
Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum. New York:
Abbeville, 1979. 31.

Michelangelo. David. 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great
Masters. By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere.  New York:
Park Lane, 1986. 226.

Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building. 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art.
By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice,
1991. 408.

Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask. Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Náprstek
Museum, Prague. The World of Masks. By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dušan
Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207.

Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the Baptist. 1742-51. São Roque,
Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. Cologne:
Könemann, 1998. 118.
Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date of photograph taken.
War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author.
22 Mar. 2003.

Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005.

30. Patent:

Components:
1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s).
2) Title of patent.
3) Issuing country and patent number.
4) Date patent was issued.
Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachführung eines Stereo-Laparoskope
in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996.

“Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813.
27 Sept. 1988.

Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091.
26 Oct. 1999.

31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)

Disney’s The Lion King. By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor.
Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre,
Toronto. 9 June 2002.

The Hobbit. By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael
Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON.
20 Apr. 2002.

The Nutcracker. By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James
Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of
Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999.

Phantom of the Opera. By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart.
Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre,
Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998.

The Shanghai Acrobats. By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre,
Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005.

32. Radio, television:

Components:
1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate.
2) Title of program, underlined.
3) Title of series.
4) Name of network.
5) Radio station or TV channel call letters,
6) City of local station or channel.
7) Broadcast date.
The CFRB Morning Show. By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003.

Law and Order. Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network.
WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002.

“New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News. WBEN, Buffalo.
13 Nov. 2002.

“New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters,
New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.

“The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner.
The Fifth Estate. CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002.

“U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side.
WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.

33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape:

Components:
1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor.
2) Title of song (in quotation marks).
3) Title of recording (underlined).
4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.).
5) Edition, release, or version.
6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet.
Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life. Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by
The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC.
Zomba, 1999.

Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic. CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor
Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power
Plant Recording Studio, n.d.
or,
Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic. CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor
Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power
Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997].
Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.”
McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back. LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and
Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by Ross Pallone.

34. Software on floppy disk

ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E. Diskette. Vers. 1.0.
IBM, 1998.

35. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette

Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights. Cassette
tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995.

Ginger. Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out. Vancouver:
Nettwerk, 1994.

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Dir. Alfonso Cuarón. Based on novel
by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson.
DVD. Warner, 2004.

Jane Austen’s Emma. Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York:
New Video Group, 1996.

Kicking & Screaming. Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick.
Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005.

The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants. Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by
Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively,
and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005.

Super Searching the Web. Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect,
1997.

The Wizard of Oz. Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum.
Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley,
Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins.
MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999.

36.Unpublished dissertations, theses

State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year.
Elmendorf, James. “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA thesis. Hampshire College, 1995.

Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss. Columbia U, 1962.
Underline title if dissertation is published:
Chan, Marjorie K.M. Fuzhou Phonology: A Non-Linear Analysis of Tone and Stress. Diss. U of
Washington, 1985.

Gregory, T.R. The C-Value Enigma. PhD thesis. U. of Guelph, ON, 2002.

Recommended Reading – What is a Annotated Bibliography?

CONTENTS

  1. Book with one author or editor
  2. Book with two authors or editors
  3. Book with three authors or editors
  4. Book with more than three authors or editors
  5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors
  6. Book with no author or editor stated
  7. Book with one author, translated by another
  8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers
  9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated
  10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author
  11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or or newspaper with no author stated
  12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors
  13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series)
  14. Advertisement
  15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated
  16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author
  17. Book, movie or film review
  18. CD-ROM, DVD
  19. Computer service, e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.
  20. Definition from a dictionary
  21. Film, movie
  22. Government publication
  23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources
  24. Interview
  25. Lecture
  26. Letter, editorial
  27. Map, chart
  28. Musical composition
  29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form
  30. Patent
  31. Performance (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
  32. Radio, Television
  33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape
  34. Software on floppy disk
  35. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette
  36. Unpublished dissertations, theses

WHAT IS A BIBLIOGRAPHY?

A bibliography, sometime incorrectly referred to as a Works Cited list, is a compilation of every source that was utilized (whether referenced in the paper or not) while researching material for a paper. Typically, a bibliography will include:

  • The complete name of the author.
  • The full title of any material researched.
  • The name and location of the publisher.
  • The date the material was published.
  • The exact page numbers of the source material.

How does a bibliography differ from a works cited list?

Generally speaking, a works cited list (or a reference page) references only the items that are actually cited in the text, not the items used in preparation for the creation of the paper. A bibliography, on the other hand, consists of everything cited in the paper and also all of the material used to prepare to create the paper.

WHAT IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY?

An annotated bibliography is, for all intents and purposes, identical to a standard bibliography with one distinct difference – the information noted is followed by a short description of the text, usefulness or quality of the source.

An annotated bibliography is an alphabetical list of books or articles for which you have added explanatory or critical notes. The annotation is usually written in a paragraph of about 150 words, in which you briefly describe the book or article cited, then add an evaluation and a critical comment of your own. An annotated bibliography differs from an abstract which is simply a summary of a piece of writing of about 150-250 words without critical evaluation.

See How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography.

WHY MUST YOU DO A BIBLIOGRAPHY?

The majority of scholars and professors will agree that a bibliography is one of the most important tools that can be included in research paper, text book, or the likes. The inclusion of a bibliography not only provides assurance that the material used in the creation of the paper is factual and relevant, but also offers credit to original sources and directs readers to the original source should more information be required.

Other reasons to include a bibliography in your work are:

1. To acknowledge and give credit to the sources of words, ideas, diagrams, illustrations, quotations borrowed, or any materials summarized or paraphrased.

2. To show that you are respectfully borrowing other people’s ideas, not stealing them, i.e. to prove that you are not plagiarizing.

3. To offer additional information to your readers who may wish to further pursue your topic.

4. To give readers an opportunity to check out your sources for accuracy. An honest bibliography inspires readers’ confidence in your writing.

5. Your teacher insists that you do a bibliography or you will get a lower grade.

Why is a Bibliography Important?

For anyone pursuing, or planning to pursue an academic career, the practice of writing a bibliography is perhaps one of the most relevant components of the research phase. Void of a bibliography, the entire paper is seemingly useless. Granted, this may come across as being extreme, but it should be known that any research completed without verification of the accuracy of facts is useless. There is not a teacher at any scholastic institution that is willing to accept a research paper or thesis without proper citation at face value. This is why it is so imperative to include a properly formatted bibliography page. But, what is a bibliography and how do you write one?

As mentioned earlier, a bibliography is a comprehensive list of every source used not only in the text, but also when researching the material for the paper. Each and every bibliographic reference MUST include:

The name of the author. In all citation formats, the name of the author is listed first. The bibliography will be listed in order of the surname of the author, alphabetically. The only exception to this will be in the Footnotes or for Turabian format which necessitates that the first name of the author be listed.

The full title of the source used or researched. The title is used to credit the specific source used, whether this be the title of a particular book, a news article, an advertisement, etc.

The name of the publisher. The name of the publisher, as well as the location, is important for validation purposes. For example, books published by larger and more prominent publishing houses are often seen as more trustworthy sources than those published by independent and lesser known sources.

The initial publication date. This information is listed in order to provide the reader with an insight into when the text was originally published. Some data has a shelf life and including the publication date will allow readers to determine if the source is dated or relevant.

One of the primary reasons to cite sources and to include a comprehensive bibliography is to provide verification that proper research has been conducted and that all claims made can be supported by facts. Anyone reading a thesis or research paper can quickly reference the citation noted in the bibliography and then seek out the original material to gather additional information if needed. It should be said that a thoroughly formatted bibliography adds to the authenticity of a thesis and garners much more positive overall impressions.

Anyone writing a thesis should invest time into carefully researching their topic and having facts to support the arguments made. These facts can then be supported in the bibliography.

WHAT MUST BE INCLUDED IN A BIBLIOGRAPHY?

1. AUTHOR

Ignore any titles, designations or degrees, etc. which appear before or after the name, e.g., The Honourable, Dr., Mr., Mrs., Ms., Rev., S.J., Esq., Ph.D., M.D., Q.C., etc. Exceptions are Jr. and Sr. Do include Jr. and Sr. because John Smith, Jr. and John Smith, Sr. are two different individuals. Include also I, II, III, etc. for the same reason.

Examples:

a) Last name, first name:

Berkel, Catharina van.
Christensen, Asger.
Wilson-Smith, Anthony.

b) Last name, first and middle names:

Price, David Robert James.

c) Last name, first name and middle initial:

Schwab, Charles R.

d) Last name, initial and middle name:

Holmes, A. William.

e) Last name, initials:

Meister, F.A.

f) Last name, first and middle names, Jr. or Sr. designation:

Davis, Benjamin Oliver, Jr.

g) Last name, first name, I, II, III, etc.:

Stilwell, William E., IV.

2. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

a) If the title on the front cover or spine of the book differs from the title on the title page, use the title on the title page for your citation.

b) UNDERLINE the title and subtitle of a book, magazine, journal, periodical, newspaper, or encyclopedia, e.g., Oops! What to Do When Things Go Wrong, Sports Illustrated, New York Times, Encyclopaedia Britannica.

c) If the title of a newspaper does not indicate the place of publication, add the name of the city or town after the title in square brackets, e.g. National Post [Toronto].

Sample, Ian. “Boy Mixes Saliva with Web Savvy to Locate Birth Father.” Globe and Mail [Toronto]

3 Nov. 2005: A1+.

Furuta, Aya. “Japan Races to Stay Ahead in Rice-Genome Research.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo]

5 June 2000: 1+.

d) DO NOT UNDERLINE the title and subtitle of an article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newspaper, or encyclopedia; put the title and subtitle between quotation marks:
Baker, Peter, and Susan B. Glasser. “No Deals with Terrorists: Putin.” Toronto Star

29 Oct. 2002: A1+.

Fields, Helen. “Virtual Healing.” U.S. News & World Report 18 Oct. 2004: 70.

Penny, Nicholas B. “Sculpture, The History of Western.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1998 ed.

e) CAPITALIZE the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, as well as all important words except for articles, prepositions, and conjunctions, e.g., Flash and XML: A Developer’s Guide, or The Red Count: The Life and Times of Harry Kessler.

f) Use LOWER CASE letters for conjunctions such as and, because, but, and however; for prepositions such as in, on, of, for, and to; as well as for articles: a, an, and the, unless they occur at the beginning of a title or subtitle, or are being used emphatically, e.g., “And Now for Something Completely Different: A Hedgehog Hospital,” “Court OKs Drug Tests for People on Welfare,” or “Why Winston Churchill Was The Man of The Hour.”

g) Separate the title from its subtitle with a COLON (:), e.g. “Belfast: A Warm Welcome Awaits.”

3. PLACE OF PUBLICATION – for Books Only

a) DO NOT use the name of a country, state, province, or county as a Place of Publication, e.g. do not list Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, Great Britain, United States of America, California, Ontario or Orange County as a place of publication.

b) Use only the name of a city or a town.

c) Choose the first city or town listed if more than one Place of Publication is indicated in the book.

d) It is not necessary to indicate the Place of Publication when citing articles from major encyclopedias, magazines, journals, or newspapers.

e) If the city is well known, it is not necessary to add the State or Province after it, e.g.:

Boston:
Chicago:
London:
New York:
Paris:
Tokyo:
Toronto:

f) If the city or town is not well known, or if there is a chance that the name of the city or town may create confusion, add the abbreviated letters for State, Province, or Territory after it for clarification. See Chapter 13. USA and Canada – Abbreviations of States, Provinces, and Territories. Example:

Austin, TX:
Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
London, ON:
Medicine Hat, AB:

g) Use “n.p.” to indicate that no place of publication is given.

You can find out more about how to use parenthetical references.

4. PUBLISHER – for Books Only

a) Be sure you write down the Publisher, NOT the Printer.

b) If a book has more than one publisher, not one publisher with multiple places of publication, list the publishers in the order given each with its corresponding year of publication, e.g.:

Conrad, Joseph. Lord Jim. 1920. New York: Doubleday; New York: Signet, 1981.

c) Shorten the Publisher’s name, e.g. use Macmillan, not Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. Omit articles A, An, and The, skip descriptions such as Press, Publishers, etc. See Section 7.5 in the 6th ed. of the MLA Handbook for more details and examples.

d) No need to indicate Publisher for encyclopedias, magazines, journals, and newspapers.

e) If you cannot find the name of the publisher anywhere in the book, use “n.p.” to indicate there is no publisher listed.

5. DATE OF PUBLICATION

a) For a book, use the copyright year as the date of publication, e.g.: 2005, not ©2005 or Copyright 2005, i.e. do not draw the symbol © for copyright, or add the word Copyright in front of the year.

b) For a monthly or quarterly publication use month and year, or season and year. For the months May, June, and July, spell out the months. For all other months with five or more letters, use abbreviations: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., and Dec. Note that there is no period after the month. For instance, the period after Jan. is for the abbreviation of January only. See Abbreviations of Months of the Year, Days of the Week, and Other Time Abbreviations. If no months are stated, use Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter, etc. as given, e.g.:

Alternatives Journal Spring 2005.
Classroom Connect Dec. 2004/Jan. 2005.
Discover July 2004.
Scientific American May 2004.

c) For a weekly or daily publication use date, month, and year, e.g.:

Newsweek 29 Sept. 2004.

d) Use the most recent Copyright year if two or more years are listed, e.g., ©1988, 1990, 2005. Use 2005.

e) Do not confuse Date of Publication with Date of Printing, e.g., 7th Printing 2005, or Reprinted in 2005. These are not publication dates.

f) If you cannot find a publication date anywhere in the book, use “n.d.” to indicate there is “No Date” listed for this publication.

g) If there is no publication date, but you are able to find out from reliable sources the approximate date of publication, use [c. 2005] for circa 2005, or use [2005?]. Always use square brackets [ ] to indicate information that is not given but is supplied by you.

6. PAGE NUMBER(S)

a) Page numbers are not needed for a book, unless the citation comes from an article or essay in an anthology, i.e. a collection of works by different authors.

Example of a work in an anthology (page numbers are for the entire essay or piece of work):

Fish, Barry, and Les Kotzer. “Legals for Life.” Death and Taxes: Beating One of the

Two Certainties in Life. Ed. Jerry White. Toronto: Warwick, 1998. 32-56.

b) If there is no page number given, use “n. pag.”

(Works Cited example)

Schulz, Charles M. The Meditations of Linus. N.p.: Hallmark, 1967.

(Footnote or Endnote example)

1 Charles M. Schulz, The Meditations of Linus (N.p.: Hallmark, 1967) n. pag.

c) To cite a source with no author, no editor, no place of publication or publisher, no year of publication stated, but when you know where the book was published, follow this example:

Full View of Temples of Taiwan – Tracks of Pilgrims. [Taipei]: n.p., n.d.

d) Frequently, page numbers are not printed on some pages in magazines and journals. Where page numbers may be counted or guessed accurately, count the pages and indicate the page number or numbers.

e) If page numbers are not consecutive, it is not necessary to list all the page numbers on which the article is found. For example, if the article starts on page 10, continues on pages 12-13, and finishes on page 36, you need only to state 10+ as page numbers, not 10-36, and not 10, 12-13, 36.

Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly

Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+.

Above article starts on page 112, continues on pages 113 and 114, advertisement appears on page 115, article continues on page 116, and ends on page 117.

f) Treat page numbers given in Roman numerals as they are given if quoting sources from Foreword, Preface, Introduction, etc., write v-xii as printed and not 5-12. Normally, do not use Roman numerals for page numbers from the main part of the book where Arabic numbers are used. Also, do not use Roman numerals for encyclopedia volume numbers if Arabic numbers are given.

g) To cite an article from a well-known encyclopedia, such as Americana, Britannica, or World Book, you need not indicate the editor, place of publication, publisher, or number of volumes in the set. If there is an author, cite the author. If no author is stated, begin the citation with the title of the article. Underline the title of the encyclopedia and provide the year of edition, e.g.:

Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed.

Do not confuse a subheading in a long article with the title of the article, i.e., do not use the subheading History or People as the title if the main title of the article is Germany.

Where the encyclopedia cited is not a well-known or familiar work, in addition to the author, title of article, and title of the encyclopedia, you must also indicate the editor, edition if available, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher, and year of publication, e.g.:
Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Ed. D.L. Birchfield.
11 vols. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1997.

WRITING A BIBLIOGRAPHY IN MLA STYLE

Begin typing your list of cited sources flush to the left margin. Indent 5 spaces (or half an inch) for the second and subsequent lines of citation.

Some citations are short and may fit all on one line. Nothing is wrong with that.

Do not type author on one line, title on a second line, and publication information on a third line. Type all citation information continuously until you reach the end of the line. Indent the second line and continue with the citation. If the citation is very long, indent the third and subsequent lines.

1. Standard Format for a Book:

Author. Title: Subtitle. City or Town: Publisher, Year of Publication.

If a book has no author or editor stated, begin with the title. If the city or town is not commonly known, add the abbreviation for the State or Province.

If you are citing two or more books by the same author or editor, list the name of the author or editor in the first entry only, and use three hyphens to indicate that the following entry or entries have the same name. Do not use the three hyphens if a book is by two or more authors or is edited by two or more individuals.

Example:

Business: The Ultimate Resource. Cambridge, MA: Perseus, 2002.

King, Stephen. Black House. New York: Random, 2001.

—. Dreamcatcher. New York: Scribner, 2001.

—. From a Buick 8: A Novel. New York: Simon, 2002.

Osen, Diane, ed. The Book That Changed My Life: Interviews with National

Book Award Winners and Finalists. New York: Modern, 2002.

2. Standard Format for a Magazine, Periodical, Journal, or Newspaper Article:

Author. “Title: Subtitle of Article.” Title of Magazine, Journal, or

Newspaper Day, Month, Year of Publication: Page Number(s).

Example:

Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88.

Nordland, Rod, Sami Yousafzai, and Babak Dehghanpisheh. “How Al Qaeda Slipped

Away.” Newsweek 19 Aug. 2002: 34-41.

Suhr, Jim. “Death Penalty for Juveniles Is Considered: High Court to Hear Missouri Case.”

Buffalo News 10 Oct. 2004: A12.

For other citation examples, see How to Write a Bibliography.

Note: It is generally not necessary to indicate volume and issue numbers for newspapers and magazines as the publication dates and pages make the articles easy to find. For scholarly journals, such as those published quarterly, semi-annually, or annually, it is advisable to indicate both volume and issue numbers when available. For a detailed discussion on citing articles and other publications in periodicals, please see Chapter 5.7 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

The bibliography is paramount when determining the overall quality and authenticity of a thesis. It also justifies the research conducted by the author. It is important to make use of current sources and to clearly understand how to cite each reference used. Never overlook the value of a bibliography, including one in your paper will prove that you have critical thinking skills and have read and understood the sources you’ve used to complete your assignment.

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