Essay on National Culture Influences on International Management
2513 Words11 Pages
1.1 Definitions of Culture
Culture can be simply considered as "the way we do things around here", said Cartwright (2004, pp.85). A further understanding given by Deresky (2006, pp.83) is that a culture is composed by 'shared values, understandings, assumptions, and goals that are learned from earlier generations, imposed by present members of a society and passed on to succeeding generations'. It can be seen that culture is formed by lifestyle and knowledge acquisition of people from a certain region, and then it stands for a general preference, opinion, and value of them. So that's why people from the same place may have much in common.
1.2 The role of Culture in Management Decisions
As culture may impact people's…show more content…
In low power cultures, the gap between high level and low level position has been shrinked.
Under such circumstances, power distance may influent organisation communication and employee relationship. According to Madlock's work (2012), Mexican employees, working in high power distance culture, feel uninvolved, disengaged and burdensome (Bartoo & Sias, 2004) in conversations with supervisors, in other words, they are suffering communication apprehension. Despite its impact on HR management, power distance usually has connection with corruption.( Getz and Volkema, 2001) For example, doing business in China usually need to deal Guanxi with authorities, where power is gathered, because it will make transactions operated more smoothly and resources more easier to gather.
2.2 Individualism Versus Collectivism
Individualism and collectivism dimension "describes the relationship between the individual and the collectivity that prevails in a given society" (Hofstede, 1980,pp.148,2001,pp.209). In individualism society, individuals are less bound with others and their self-achievements are highly
media and culture Essay examples
2246 Words9 Pages
media and culture A sign system is representation through communication which in turn leads to a shared meaning or understanding. We hold mental representations that classify and organise the world (whether fact or fiction), people, objects and events into meaningful categories so that we can meaningfully comprehend the world. The media use sign systems through newspapers, magazines, television,internet, and the radio etc. The conceptual map of meaning and language are the basis of representation. The conceptual map of meaning, are concepts organised, arranged and classified into complex relations to one another. The conceptual map of meaning although allows you to distinguish your own individual interpretation of the world, at the…show more content…
Whereas the constructionist approach is where we the audience construct the meaning through our shared conceptual maps and language. The media use these sign symbols so that an association can be made to the object, person, event, or idea etc. With this information of representation and language the media can familiarise people with many things, such as cultural knowledge. As advertising surrounds consumers, concern is often expressed over the impact on society, particularly on values and lifestyle. While a number of factors influence the cultural values, lifestyles, and behaviour of a society, the overwhelming amount of advertising and its prevalence in the mass media suggests that advertising plays a major role in influencing and transmitting social values. In his book Advertising and Social Change, Ronald Berman says; The Institution of the family, religion and education have grown noticeably weaker over each of the past three generations. The world itself seems to have grown more complex. In the absence of traditional authority, advertising has become a kind of social guide. It depicts us in all the myriad situations possible to a life of free choice. It provides ideas about style, morality, and behaviour. While there is general agreement that advertising is an important social influence agent, opinions as to the value of its contribution are often negative. Advertising is criticised for encouraging materialism,